About Regeneration

Regeneration means putting life at the center of every action and decision.

The Book

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References

Front Matter

Introduction

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Smale, Dan A., Thomas Wernberg, Eric C. J. Oliver, Mads Thomsen, Ben P. Harvey, Sandra C. Straub, Michael T. Burrows, et al. 2019. “Marine Heatwaves Threaten Global Biodiversity and the Provision of Ecosystem Services.” Nature Climate Change 9 (4): 306–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-019-0412-1.

Smith, Bren. 2019. “Who Ocean Farms Matters: Women Are Leading the New Blue Economy.” Medium (blog). May 28, 2019. https://medium.com/@bren_7821/who-ocean-farms-matters-women-are-leading-the-new-blue-economy-4cff4941ac88.

sourcingmatters. 2019. “Ep.86: Kathleen Kennedy – Collective Intelligence.” Sourcing Matters.Show (blog). June 19, 2019. https://www.sourcingmatters.show/index.php/2019/06/19/ep-86-kathleen-kennedy-collective-intelligence/.

Stellenbosch University South Africa. 2020. “Humans Need to Do Better If We’re to Avoid Ocean System Collapse.” Phys Org. July 20, 2020. https://phys.org/news/2020-07-humans-ocean-collapse.html.

Stephens, Tim. 2018. “‘Electrogeochemistry’ Captures Carbon, Produces Fuel, Offsets Ocean Acidification.” UC Santa Cruz News. June 25, 2018. https://news.ucsc.edu/2018/06/electrogeochemistry.html.

Sullivan, Brian K. 2020. “Warmest Oceans on Record Adds to Hurricanes, Wildfires Risks.” Bloomberg.Com, April 18, 2020. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-04-18/warmest-oceans-on-record-could-set-off-a-year-of-extreme-weather.

Taub, Ben. 2020. “Thirty-Six Thousand Feet Under the Sea.” The New Yorker. May 7, 2020. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2020/05/18/thirty-six-thousand-feet-under-the-sea.

“The Dangers of Industrial Ocean Fish Farming.” 2018. Washington D.C.: Friends of the Earth. https://foe.org/resources/dangers-industrial-ocean-fish-farming/#:~:text=From%20direct%20discharge%20of%20heavy,farms%20devastate%20the%20ocean%20ecosystem.

“The Ocean Opportunity Lab (TOOL).” n.d. The Ocean Opportunity Lab (TOOL). Accessed August 31, 2021. https://theoceanopportunitylab.com/.

“The Redfield Ratio at 80.” n.d. Nature Geoscience. https://www.nature.com/collections/fncspbsnmk.

The Revelator. 2020. “New High Seas Treaty Could Be a Gamechanger for the Ocean.” EcoWatch. May 9, 2020. https://www.ecowatch.com/high-seas-treaty-2645960152.html.

Tweddle, Jacqueline F., Matthew Gubbins, and Beth E. Scott. 2018. “Should Phytoplankton Be a Key Consideration for Marine Management?” Marine Policy 97 (November): 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2018.08.026.

University of Queensland. 2020. “The Deep Ocean Is Warming Slowly—but Dramatic Changes Are Ahead.” Phys Org. May 25, 2020. https://phys.org/news/2020-05-deep-ocean-slowlybut.html.

Urbina, Ian. 2020. “How China’s Expanding Fishing Fleet Is Depleting the World’s Oceans.” Yale E360. August 17, 2020. https://e360.yale.edu/features/how-chinas-expanding-fishing-fleet-is-depleting-worlds-oceans.

Venturi, Gabriele. n.d. “Gallery 2020 | Drone Photo Awards.” Accessed August 26, 2021. https://droneawards.photo/gallery/2020.

Vieno, Niina, Pär Hallgren, and Petra Wallberg. 2017. “Pharmaceuticals in the Aquatic Environment of the Baltic Sea Region: A Status Report.” UNESCO Emerging Pollutants in Water Series. Paris, France: UNESCO, HELCOM. https://helcom.fi/media/publications/BSEP149.pdf.

Webb, Paul. 2019. “9.8 Thermohaline Circulation.” In Introduction to Oceanography. Roger Williams University Open Publishing. https://rwu.pressbooks.pub/webboceanography/chapter/9-8-thermohaline-circulation/.

Wheeler, Timothy B. 2020. “Oyster Growers Hope Polluters Will Shell out for Nutrient Credits.” Bay Journal. May 11, 2020. https://www.bayjournal.com/news/fisheries/oyster-growers-hope-polluters-will-shell-out-for-nutrient-credits/article_d5d4abac-8e1e-11ea-be85-8f3b710e121b.html.

Wright, Deborah Rowan. 2020. Future Sea: How to Rescue and Protect the World’s Oceans. First edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Marine Protected Areas

“About Enric Sala.” n.d. Enric Sala. Accessed September 21, 2021. https://www.enricsala.com/about.

“About Papahānaumokuākea.” n.d. Papahānaumokuākea. Accessed September 21, 2021. https://www.papahanaumokuakea.gov/new-about/.

Andersson, Andreas J., and Dwight Gledhill. 2013. “Ocean Acidification and Coral Reefs: Effects on Breakdown, Dissolution, and Net Ecosystem Calcification.” Annual Review of Marine Science 5 (1): 321–48. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-121211-172241.

Baker, Aryn. 2021. “How Industrial Fishing Creates More CO2 Emissions Than Air Travel.” Time. March 17, 2021. https://time.com/5947430/bottom-trawling-carbon-emissions-study/.

Bilefsky, Dan. 2020. “In ‘Lobster War,’ Indigenous Canadians Face Attacks by Fishermen.” The New York Times, October 20, 2020, sec. World. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/10/20/world/canada/nova-scotia-lobster-war.html.

Bolster, Jeff, Francisco Chavez PhD, Jamie Cournane PhD, Jon Erlandson PhD, David Field, Marah J. Hardt, Carina B. Lange, et al. 2011. Shifting Baselines: The Past and the Future of Ocean Fisheries. Edited by Dr Jeremy B. C. Jackson PhD, Karen E. Alexander ABD MA, and Dr Enric Sala PhD. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Briggs, Johnny. 2020. “How Much of the Ocean Is Really Protected in 2020?” PEW. July 7, 2020. https://pew.org/2YucOEf.

Bushell, Amanda. 2014. “Cabo Pulmo – Giving Optimism to Coral Reefs.” Smithsonian Ocean. September 2014. http://ocean.si.edu/ecosystems/coral-reefs/cabo-pulmo-giving-optimism-coral-reefs.

Carter, Nicholas. n.d. “The Climate Crisis Secret.” Sentient Media (blog). Accessed August 16, 2021. https://sentientmedia.org/the-climate-crisis-secret/.

Edgar, Graham J., Rick D. Stuart-Smith, Trevor J. Willis, Stuart Kininmonth, Susan C. Baker, Stuart Banks, Neville S. Barrett, et al. 2014. “Global Conservation Outcomes Depend on Marine Protected Areas with Five Key Features.” Nature 506 (7487): 216–20. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13022.

Eyton, T. C., and John Van Voorst. 1858. A History of the Oyster and the Oyster Fisheries. London: John Van Voorst, Paternoster Row. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/58057.

FAO, ed. 2016. Contributing to Food Security and Nutrition for All. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2016. Rome. http://www.fao.org/3/i5555e/i5555e.pdf.

Field, Michael. 2021. “Why the World’s Most Fertile Fishing Ground Is Facing a ‘Unique and Dire’ Threat.” The Guardian, June 13, 2021, sec. World news. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/jun/14/why-the-worlds-most-fertile-fishing-ground-is-facing-a-unique-and-dire-threat.

Galoustian, Gisele. 2019. “Thirty Years of Unique Data Reveal What’s Really Killing Coral Reefs.” Florida Atlantic University News Desk, July 15, 2019. http://www.fau.edu/newsdesk/articles/looe-key-study.php.

Giakoumi, Sylvaine, Jennifer McGowan, Morena Mills, Maria Beger, Rodrigo H. Bustamante, Anthony Charles, Patrick Christie, et al. 2018. “Revisiting ‘Success’ and ‘Failure’ of Marine Protected Areas: A Conservation Scientist Perspective.” Frontiers in Marine Science 5: 223. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2018.00223.

“Giant Kelp.” n.d. Monterey Bay Aquarium. Accessed September 21, 2021. https://www.montereybayaquarium.org/animals/animals-a-to-z/giant-kelp.

“Global Marine Fishing Protection.” 2021. Marine Protection Atlas. 2021. https://mpatlas.org/zones/.

“Global Marine Protection | Marine Protection Atlas.” 2021. Marine Conservation Institute. https://mpatlas.org/zones/.

“Historical Background and Evaluation of Marine Protected Areas in the United States.” 2001. In Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystems. Washington D.C.: National Academies Press. https://www.nap.edu/read/9994/chapter/10.

Hunter, Douglas. 2017. “John Cabot.” In The Canadian Encyclopedia. https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/john-cabot.

Irigoien, Xabier, T. A. Klevjer, A. Røstad, U. Martinez, G. Boyra, J. L. Acuña, A. Bode, et al. 2014. “Large Mesopelagic Fishes Biomass and Trophic Efficiency in the Open Ocean.” Nature Communications 5 (1): 3271. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms4271.

Kateman, Brian. n.d. “Food Innovators Set Out To Catch Nascent Seafood Alternative Industry.” Forbes. Accessed August 16, 2021. https://www.forbes.com/sites/briankateman/2020/03/09/food-innovators-set-out-to-catch-nascent-seafood-alternative-industry/.

Krause-Jensen, Dorte, and Carlos M. Duarte. 2016. “Substantial Role of Macroalgae in Marine Carbon Sequestration.” Nature Geoscience 9 (October): 737–42. https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2790.

Langer, Martin R. 2008. “Assessing the Contribution of Foraminiferan Protists to Global Ocean Carbonate Production1.” Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 55 (3): 163–69. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1550-7408.2008.00321.x.

“Living Ocean.” n.d. NASA Science. Accessed September 21, 2021. https://science.nasa.gov/earth-science/oceanography/living-ocean#.

“Marine Protected Areas.” n.d. Protected Planet. Accessed September 25, 2021. https://www.protectedplanet.net/en/thematic-areas/marine-protected-areas.

“Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA) and Federal Facilities.” 2013. Other Policies and Guidance. EPA. September 18, 2013. https://www.epa.gov/enforcement/marine-protection-research-and-sanctuaries-act-mprsa-and-federal-facilities.

McCauley, Douglas J., Caroline Jablonicky, Edward H. Allison, Christopher D. Golden, Francis H. Joyce, Juan Mayorga, and David Kroodsma. 2018. “Wealthy Countries Dominate Industrial Fishing.” Science Advances 4 (8): eaau2161. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aau2161.

Middelburg, Jack J., Karline Soetaert, and Mathilde Hagens. 2020. “Ocean Alkalinity, Buffering and Biogeochemical Processes.” Reviews of Geophysics 58 (3): e2019RG000681. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019RG000681.

“Mission.” n.d. PIPA Conservation Trust. http://pipatrust.org/environmental-health-policies-pipa/.

Myers, Ransom A., and Boris Worm. 2003. “Rapid Worldwide Depletion of Predatory Fish Communities.” Nature 423 (6937): 280–83. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01610.

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National Research Council. 2001. Read “Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystems” at NAP.Edu. The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/9994.

O’Connell, Victoria, Waldo Wakefield, and H. Gary Greene. n.d. “Southeast Alaska Edgecumbe Pinnacles Marine Reserve.” Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Accessed September 25, 2021. http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/index.cfm?adfg=commercialbyareasoutheast.pinnacles_research.

“Oyster Fact Sheet.” n.d. Chesapeake Bay Foundation. Accessed September 21, 2021. https://www.cbf.org/about-the-bay/more-than-just-the-bay/chesapeake-wildlife/eastern-oysters/oyster-fact-sheet.html.

Pastino, Blake de. 2016. “11,000-Year-Old Seafaring Indian Sites Discovered on California Island.” Western Digs. January 1, 2016. http://westerndigs.org/11000-year-old-seafaring-indian-sites-discovered-on-california-island/.

Petsko, Emily. 2020. “Devastated by Overfishing and Climate Change, California’s Abalone Face a Rocky Road to Recovery.” Oceana. December 3, 2020. https://oceana.org/blog/devastated-overfishing-and-climate-change-california%E2%80%99s-abalone-face-rocky-road-recovery.

“Pristine Seas.” n.d. National Geographic. Accessed September 21, 2021. http://www.nationalgeographic.org/projects/pristine-seas/.

Putney, Robin. 2008. “Customary Marine Tenure and Traditional Ecological Knowledge in Palau.” Master’s Theses, San Jose, CA, USA: San Jose State University. https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/etd_theses/3493.

Rick, Torben C, Jon M Erlandson, Nicholas P Jew, and Leslie A Reeder-Myers. 2013. “Archaeological Survey, Paleogeography, and the Search for Late Pleistocene Paleocoastal Peoples of Santa Rosa Island, California.” Journal of Field Archaeology 38 (4): 324–31. https://doi.org/10.1179/0093469013Z.00000000065.

Roberts, Callum M, Richard W Page, Bethan C O’Leary, Harriet L Allen, Katherine L Yates, Alexander W tudhope, Colin McClean, Alex D Rogers, Julie P Hawkins, and Callum M Roberts. 2019. “30x30: A Bluepring for Ocean Protection.” Germany: Greenpeace. https://storage.googleapis.com/planet4-international-stateless/2019/03/5db0f88b-greenpeace-30x30-blueprint-report.pdf.

Sala, Enric. 2020. The Nature of Nature: Why We Need the Wild. National Geographic Books.

Sala, Enric, and Sylvaine Giakoumi. 2018. “No-Take Marine Reserves Are the Most Effective Protected Areas in the Ocean.” ICES Journal of Marine Science 75 (3): 1166–68. https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsx059.

Sala, Enric, Juan Mayorga, Christopher Costello, David Kroodsma, Maria L. D. Palomares, Daniel Pauly, U. Rashid Sumaila, and Dirk Zeller. 2018. “The Economics of Fishing the High Seas.” Science Advances 4 (6). https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aat2504.

Scales, Helen. 2021. “A Drop in the Ocean: Rewilding the Seas.” The Guardian, July 4, 2021, sec. Environment. http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2021/jul/04/rewilding-the-seas-overfishing-oceans.

Schiller, Laurenne, Megan Bailey, Jennifer Jacquet, and Enric Sala. 2018. “High Seas Fisheries Play a Negligible Role in Addressing Global Food Security.” Science Advances 4 (8): eaat8351. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aat8351.

Sherin, C. S. 2020. “The Devastation of Overfishing and the Major Problems with Aquaculture and Seafood.” Medium (blog). March 6, 2020. https://cs-sherin.medium.com/the-devastation-of-overfishing-and-the-major-problems-with-aquaculture-and-seafood-5143bbcf3508.

“Sitka Pinnacles | Marine Protection Atlas.” n.d. Marine Conservation Institute. Accessed September 22, 2021. https://mpatlas.org/zones/8542.

“South 239th Street Park Conservation Area.” n.d. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. Accessed September 22, 2021. https://wdfw.wa.gov/fishing/management/mpa/conservation-areas/south-239th-street-park.

Sumaila, U. Rashid, Vicky W. Y. Lam, Dana D. Miller, Louise Teh, Reg A. Watson, Dirk Zeller, William W. L. Cheung, et al. 2015. “Winners and Losers in a World Where the High Seas Is Closed to Fishing.” Scientific Reports 5 (February): 8481. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep08481.

“The Biological Carbon Pump.” n.d. The Carbon Cycle and Climate. Accessed September 25, 2021. http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/virtualmuseum/climatechange1/06_2.shtml.

“The MPA Inventory.” n.d. National Marine Protected Areas Center. Accessed September 21, 2021. https://marineprotectedareas.noaa.gov/dataanalysis/mpainventory/.

The Ocean Portal Team. n.d. “Ocean Acidification.” Smithsonian Ocean. Accessed September 21, 2021. http://ocean.si.edu/ocean-life/invertebrates/ocean-acidification.

“The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture.” 2016. Contributing to Food Security and Nutrition for All. Rome: FAO. http://www.fao.org/3/i5555e/i5555e.pdf.

Tweddle, Jacqueline F., Matthew Gubbins, and Beth E. Scott. 2018. “Should Phytoplankton Be a Key Consideration for Marine Management?” Marine Policy 97 (November): 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2018.08.026.

UNEP-WCMC and IUCN. 2021. “Protected Planet Report 2020.” Cambridge UK; Gland, Switzerland: UNEP-WCMC and IUCN. https://livereport.protectedplanet.net.

United Nations, ed. 2017. “Open Ocean Deep Sea.” In The First Global Integrated Marine Assessment: World Ocean Assessment I, 685–704. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://www.cambridge.org/core/books/first-global-integrated-marine-assessment/open-ocean-deep-sea/EB179C212A160B6E99C6BD5996E3CCC8.

Veltre, Douglas W., and Allen P. McCartney. 2002. “Russian Exploitation of Aleuts and Fur Seals: The Archaeology of Eighteenth- and Early-Nineteenth-Century Settlements in the Pribilof Islands, Alaska.” Historical Archaeology 36 (3): 8–17.

Wang, Brian. 2018. “Restore the Oceans and Get up to 50 Times the Fish and Store a Trillion Tons of CO2.” NextBigFuture.Com (blog). July 18, 2018. https://www.nextbigfuture.com/2018/07/restore-the-oceans-and-get-up-to-50-times-the-fish-and-store-a-trillion-tons-of-co2.html.

“What Is Ocean Acidification?” n.d. National Ocean Service. Accessed September 21, 2021. https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/acidification.html.

Wilson, R. W., F. J. Millero, J. R. Taylor, P. J. Walsh, V. Christensen, S. Jennings, and M. Grosell. 2009. “Contribution of Fish to the Marine Inorganic Carbon Cycle.” Science 323 (5912): 359–62. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1157972.

Seaforestation

“12 Facts About Otters for Sea Otter Awareness Week.” 2017. DOI.Gov. September 22, 2017. https://www.doi.gov/blog/12-facts-about-otters-sea-otter-awareness-week.

“A Deep Dive into Zero Hunger: The Seaweed Revolution.” 2020. UN News. November 14, 2020. https://news.un.org/en/story/2020/11/1077212.

“About – Kelp Blue.” n.d. Kelp Blue. Accessed October 7, 2021. https://kelp.blue/about/.

“Alaska Mariculture Initiative Economic Analysis to Inform a Comprehensive Plan PHASE II.” 2017. McDowell Group. http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/Static/fishing/pdfs/mariculture/phase_2_fullreport.pdf.

Alleway, Heidi K, Chris L Gillies, Melanie J Bishop, Rebecca R Gentry, Seth J Theuerkauf, and Robert Jones. 2019. “The Ecosystem Services of Marine Aquaculture: Valuing Benefits to People and Nature.” BioScience 69 (1): 59–68. https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biy137.

“ARPA-E Announces Macroalgae Funding Opportunity.” 2016. ARPA-E. December 16, 2016. https://arpa-e.energy.gov/news-and-media/press-releases/arpa-e-announces-macroalgae-funding-opportunity.

“Assessing the Potential for Restoration and Permaculture of Tasmania’s Giant Kelp Forests.” n.d. Standard Page. Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies. Accessed October 13, 2021. https://www.imas.utas.edu.au/research/ecology-and-biodiversity/projects/projects/assessing-the-potential-for-restoration-and-permaculture-of-tasmanias-giant-kelp-forests.

“Atlantic Sea Farms.” n.d. Accessed October 14, 2021. https://atlanticseafarms.com/.

Augustin, Johan. 2020. “In Race for a Sustainable Alternative to Plastic, Indonesia Bets on Seaweed.” Mongabay Environmental News, March 25, 2020, sec. Environmental news. https://news.mongabay.com/2020/03/in-race-for-a-sustainable-alternative-to-plastic-indonesia-bets-on-seaweed/.

Baird, Mark Edward, Rebecca Green, Ryan Lowe, Mathieu Mongin, and Elodie Bougeot. 2020. “Optimising Cool-Water Injections to Reduce Thermal Stress on Coral Reefs of the Great Barrier Reef.” PLOS ONE 15 (10): e0239978. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0239978.

Barber, Charles V, Rachael Petersen, Virginia Young, Brendan Mackey, and Cyril Kormos. 2020. “The Nexus Report: Nature Based Solutions to the Biodiversity and Climate Crisis.” F20 Foundations, Campaign for Nature and SEE Foundation. https://www.foundations-20.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/The-Nexus-Report.pdf.

Barnett, Tracy, and Lyla June. 2019. “Kelp Gardens, Piñon Forests.” The Esperanza Project (blog). November 9, 2019. https://www.esperanzaproject.com/2019/environment/kelp-gardens-and-pinon-forests-native-regenerative-agriculture/.

Bar-On, Yinon M., Rob Phillips, and Ron Milo. 2018. “The Biomass Distribution on Earth.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 115 (25): 6506–11. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1711842115.

Barrett, Axel. 2019. “Unilever, Just Eat and Notpla Partner To Launch Sauces in Seaweed Sachets.” Bioplastics News. November 7, 2019. https://bioplasticsnews.com/2019/11/07/unilever-just-eat-and-notpla-partner-to-launch-sauces-in-seaweed-sachets/.

Bast, Felix. 2014. “Seaweeds.” Resonance 19 (2): 149–59. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12045-014-0018-x.

Bedolfe, Sarah. 2017. “Seaweed Could Be Scrubbing More Carbon from the Atmosphere than We Expected.” Oceana. October 6, 2017. https://oceana.org/blog/seaweed-could-be-scrubbing-more-carbon-atmosphere-we-expected.

Belton, Ben, David C. Little, Wenbo Zhang, Peter Edwards, Michael Skladany, and Shakuntala H. Thilsted. 2020. “Farming Fish in the Sea Will Not Nourish the World.” Nature Communications 11 (1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19679-9.

Bertocci, I., R. Araújo, P. Oliveira, and I. Sousa-Pinto. 2015. “Potential Effects of Kelp Species on Local Fisheries.” Journal of Applied Ecology 52: 1216–26. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12483.

Bienkowski, Brian. 2019. “Surprise! Unexpected Ocean Heat Waves Are Becoming the Norm.” EHN. August 6, 2019. https://www.ehn.org/ocean-heat-waves-climate-change-2639652854.html.

Bindoff, Nathaniel L, Jürgen Willebrand, Vincenzo Artale, Anny Cazenave, Jonathan M Gregory, Sergey Gulev, Corrine Le Quéré, et al. 2007. “Observations: Oceanic Climate Change and Sea Level.” In Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 48. Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press. http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/15400/1/ar4-wg1-chapter5.pdf.

Blight, A., R. Foster-Smith, I. Sotheran, J. Egerton, R. McAllen, and G. Savidge. 2011. “Development of a Methodology for the Quantitative Assessment of Ireland’s Inshore Kelp Resource.” Marine Institute. https://oar.marine.ie/bitstream/handle/10793/702/Quantitative%20Assessment%20Methodology%20for%20Inshore%20Kelp%20Resource.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.

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Boys, Callan. 2020. “The Fish Farmer Growing Seaweed to Feed Cows and Save the Planet.” Good Food. February 15, 2020. https://www.goodfood.com.au/eat-out/news/the-fish-farmer-growing-seaweed-to-feed-cows-and-save-the-planet-20200214-h1lt88.

Breitburg, Denise, Lisa A. Levin, Andreas Oschlies, Marilaure Grégoire, Francisco P. Chavez, Daniel J. Conley, Véronique Garçon, et al. 2018. “Declining Oxygen in the Global Ocean and Coastal Waters.” Science 359 (6371): eaam7240. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aam7240.

“Bren Smith’s Open-Sourced 3D Ocean Farm Model Can Feed a Hungry Planet.” 2017. Bioneers. September 26, 2017. https://bioneers.org/bren-smiths-open-sourced-3d-ocean-farm-model-can-feed-hungry-planet-ztvz1709/.

Bricker, Suzanne B., Joao Gomes Ferreira, Changbo Zhu, Julie M. Rose, Eve Galimany, Gary Wikfors, Camille Saurel, et al. 2018. “The Role of Shellfish Aquaculture in Reduction of Eutrophication in an Urban Estuary.” Environmental Science & Technology 52 (1): 173–83. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b03970.

Bryce, Emma. 2020a. “Can the Forests of the World’s Oceans Contribute to Alleviating the Climate Crisis?” Ensia (blog). June 24, 2020. https://ensia.com/features/kelp-carbon-sequestration-climate-mitigation/.

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Buck, Holly Jean. 2020. “The Desperate Race to Cool the Ocean before It’s Too Late.” MIT Technology Review. April 2, 2020. https://www.technologyreview.com/2019/04/23/136001/the-desperate-race-to-cool-the-ocean-before-its-too-late/.

Buckley, Christine. 2011. “Seaweed: The New Trend in Water Purification.” UConn Today, July 27, 2011. https://today.uconn.edu/2011/07/seaweed-the-new-trend-in-water-purification-2/.

Burgin, Connor J, Jocelyn P Colella, Philip L Kahn, and Nathan S Upham. 2018. “How Many Species of Mammals Are There?” Journal of Mammalogy 99 (1): 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1093/jmammal/gyx147.

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Forests

Introduction

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Hengl, Tomislav, and Ichsani Wheeler. 2018. “Soil Organic Carbon Stock in Kg/M2 for 5 Standard Depth Intervals (0–10, 10–30, 30–60, 60–100 and 100–200 Cm) at 250 m Resolution.” Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2536040.

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Liu, Xiaojuan, Stefan Trogisch, Jin-Sheng He, Pascal A. Niklaus, Helge Bruelheide, Zhiyao Tang, Alexandra Erfmeier, et al. 2018. “Tree Species Richness Increases Ecosystem Carbon Storage in Subtropical Forests.” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 285 (August). https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.1240.

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MacKenzie, Kate. 2021. “Too Many Companies Are Banking on Carbon Capture to Reach Net Zero.” Bloomberg.Com, January 15, 2021. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2021-01-15/too-many-companies-are-banking-on-carbon-capture-to-reach-net-zero.

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Proforestation

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Fire Ecology

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Abrams, Marc D., and Gregory J. Nowacki. 2020. “Native American Imprint in Palaeoecology.” Nature Sustainability 3 (July): 896–97. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41893-020-0578-6.

Adam Sings in the Timber, and Michael Kodas. 2021. “Video: In California, the Northfork Mono Tribe Brings ‘Good Fire’ to Overgrown Woodlands.” Inside Climate News (blog). March 6, 2021. https://insideclimatenews.org/news/06032021/tribe-good-fire-woodlands/.

“Ancient Prescribed-Burns Could Revitalize Communities Today.” 2019. ScienceDaily. August 27, 2019. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/08/190827095239.htm.

Andrews, Robin George. 2018. “How a Weird Fire Vortex Sparked a Meteorological Mystery.” National Geographic. December 19, 2018. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2018/12/how-weird-fire-vortex-sparked-meteorological-mystery/.

Archibald, Sally, A. Carla Staver, and Simon A. Levin. 2012. “Evolution of Human-Driven Fire Regimes in Africa.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109 (3): 847–52. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1118648109.

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Bonta, Mark, Robert Gosford, Dick Eussen, Nathan Ferguson, Erana Loveless, and Maxwell Witwer. 2017. “Intentional Fire-Spreading by ‘Firehawk’ Raptors in Northern Australia.” Journal of Ethnobiology 37 (4): 700. https://doi.org/10.2993/0278-0771-37.4.700.

Bradley, Bethany A., Caroline A. Curtis, Emily J. Fusco, John T. Abatzoglou, Jennifer K. Balch, Sepideh Dadashi, and Mao-Ning Tuanmu. 2017. “Cheatgrass (Bromus Tectorum) Distribution in the Intermountain Western United States and Its Relationship to Fire Frequency, Seasonality, and Ignitions.” Biological Invasions 20 (6): 1493–1506. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-017-1641-8.

“Building a Long-Term Record of Fire.” 2019. Text.Article. Earth Observatory. August 21, 2019. https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/145421/building-a-long-term-record-of-fire.

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Cowan, Jill. 2020. “Alarmed by Scope of Wildfires, Officials Turn to Native Americans for Help.” The New York Times, October 7, 2020, sec. U.S. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/10/07/us/native-american-burning-practices-california.html.

D’antonio, Carla M., and Peter M. Vitousek. 1992. “Biological Invasions by Exotic Grasses, the Grass/Fire Cycle, and Global Change.” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 23 (1): 63–87. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.es.23.110192.

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Denevan, William M. 1992. “The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 82 (3): 369–85. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8306.1992.tb01965.x.

Donovan, Geoffrey H., and Thomas C. Brown. 2007. “Be Careful What You Wish for: The Legacy of Smokey Bear.” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5 (2): 73–79. https://doi.org/10.1890/1540-9295(2007)5[73:BCWYWF]2.0.CO;2.

Duchesne, Luc C., and Suzanne Wetzel. 2004. “Effect of Fire Intensity and Depth of Burn on Lowbush Blueberry, Vaccinium Angustifolium, and Velvet Leaf Blueberry, Vaccinium Myrtilloides, Production in Eastern Ontario.” The Canadian Field-Naturalist 118 (2): 195–200. https://doi.org/10.22621/cfn.v118i2.913.

Earl, Nick, and Ian Simmonds. 2018. “Spatial and Temporal Variability and Trends in 2001–2016 Global Fire Activity.” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 123 (5): 2524–36. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JD027749.

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Fales, Olivia. 2020. “Artist Teresita Fernández and Thoughts on Fire: Wild and Prescribed, Destructive and Constructive.” Art Muse Los Angeles. January 31, 2020. https://www.artmusela.com/journal/2020/1/31/artist-teresita-fernndez-and-thoughts-on-fire-wild-and-prescribed-destructive-and-constructive.

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Freedman, Andrew. "'Zombie Fires' Are Erupting in Alaska and Likely Siberia, Signaling Severe Arctic Fire Season May Lie Ahead." The Washington Post. May 28, 2020. https://www.washingtonpost.com/weather/2020/05/28/zombie-fires-burning-arctic-siberia/.

Fuller, Thomas, and Matthew Abbott. 2020. “Reducing Fire, and Cutting Carbon Emissions, the Aboriginal Way.” The New York Times, January 16, 2020, sec. World. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/16/world/australia/aboriginal-fire-management.html.

Garnett, Stephen T., Neil D. Burgess, Julia E. Fa, Álvaro Fernández-Llamazares, Zsolt Molnár, Cathy J. Robinson, James E. M. Watson, et al. 2018. “A Spatial Overview of the Global Importance of Indigenous Lands for Conservation.” Nature Sustainability 1 (7): 369–74. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41893-018-0100-6.

Gee, Henry. 1999. “Beetles Sniff out Forest Fires.” Nature News, March. https://www.nature.com/news/1999/990325/full/news990325-2.html.

Gillis, Justin. 2017. “Let Forest Fires Burn? What the Black-Backed Woodpecker Knows.” The New York Times, August 6, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/06/science/let-forest-fires-burn-what-the-black-backed-woodpecker-knows.html.

Girardin, Martin P., and Manfred Mudelsee. 2008. “Past and Future Changes in Canadian Boreal Wildfire Activity.” Ecological Applications 18 (2): 391–406. https://doi.org/10.1890/07-0747.1.

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Graham, Daniel W. 2019. “Heraclitus.” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. September 3, 2019. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/heraclitus/.

Gray, Ellen. 2019. “Satellite Data Record Shows Climate Change’s Impact on Fires.” NASA. September 10, 2019. https://climate.nasa.gov/news/2912/satellite-data-record-shows-climate-changes-impact-on-fires.

Hamilton, John B, Dennis W Rondorf, William R Tinnishwood, Ryan J Leary, Tim Mayer, Gavette Charleen, and Lynne A Casal. 2016. “The Persistence and Characteristics of Chinook Salmon Migrations to the Upper Klamath River Prior to Exclusion by Dams.” Oregon Historical Quarterly 117 (3). https://www.ohs.org/research-and-library/oregon-historical-quarterly/upload/Hamilton_Chinook-Salmon-Migrations_OHQ_117_3_Fall-2016_Spread.pdf.

Hasan, Mejs. n.d. “Native Tribes Are Taking Fire Control Into Their Own Hands.” Wired. Accessed October 1, 2021. https://www.wired.com/story/wildfires-native-tribes-controlled-burns/.

He, Tianhua, Byron B. Lamont, and Juli G. Pausas. 2019. “Fire as a Key Driver of Earth’s Biodiversity.” Biological Reviews 94 (6): 1983–2010. https://doi.org/10.1111/brv.12544.

Heal, Alexandra, and Andrew Wasley. 2019. “Amazon Aflame: What We’ve Learnt in a Year Reporting on Brazilian Beef and the Rainforest.” The Bureau of Investigative Journalism. December 16, 2019. https://www.thebureauinvestigates.com/blog/2019-12-12/amazon-aflame-what-weve-learnt-in-a-year-reporting-on-brazilian-beef-and-the-rainforest.

Holden, Zachary A., Alan Swanson, Charles H. Luce, W. Matt Jolly, Marco Maneta, Jared W. Oyler, Dyer A. Warren, Russell Parsons, and David Affleck. 2018. “Decreasing Fire Season Precipitation Increased Recent Western US Forest Wildfire Activity.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 115 (36): E8349–57. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1802316115.

Hunter, Molly E., and Marcos D. Robles. 2020. “Tamm Review: The Effects of Prescribed Fire on Wildfire Regimes and Impacts: A Framework for Comparison.” Forest Ecology and Management 475: 118435. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2020.118435.

Hutto, Richard L., Monica L. Bond, and Dominick A. Dellasala. 2015. “Using Bird Ecology to Learn About the Benefits of Severe Fire.” In The Ecological Importance of Mixed-Severity Fires, 55–88. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-802749-3.00003-7.

“Indigenous.” n.d. In Dictionary.Com. Accessed September 23, 2021. https://www.dictionary.com/browse/indigenous.

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“Interactive World Forest Map & Tree Cover Change Data.” 2016. Global Forest Watch. https://www.globalforestwatch.org/map/.

IPBES. 2019. “Summary for Policymakers of the Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services.” Bonn, Germany: IPBES.

John Bond, William. 2013. “Fires, Ecological Effects Of.” In Encyclopedia of Biodiversity (Second Edition), edited by Simon A Levin, 435–42. Waltham: Academic Press. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123847195000538.

Johnson, Christopher N., Lynda D. Prior, Sally Archibald, Helen M. Poulos, Andrew M. Barton, Grant J. Williamson, and David M.J.S. Bowman. 2018. “Can Trophic Rewilding Reduce the Impact of Fire in a More Flammable World?” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 373 (1761): 20170443. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2017.0443.

Jolly, W. Matt, Mark A. Cochrane, Patrick H. Freeborn, Zachary A. Holden, Timothy J. Brown, Grant J. Williamson, and David M. J. S. Bowman. 2015. “Climate-Induced Variations in Global Wildfire Danger from 1979 to 2013.” Nature Communications 6 (7537). https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms8537.

“Karuk Traditional Ecological Knowledge and the Need for Knowledge Sovereignty.” 2019. Karuk Climate Change Projects. January 9, 2019. https://karuktribeclimatechangeprojects.com/about/karuk-tek-knowledge-sovereignty/.

Keeley, Jon E. 2002. “Native American Impacts on Fire Regimes of the California Coastal Ranges.” Journal of Biogeography 29 (3): 303–20. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2699.2002.00676.x.

Kelly, L.T., and L. Brotons. 2017. “Using Fire to Promote Biodiversity.” Science 355 (6331): 1264–65. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aam7672.

Khan, Mohammed, and Kusum Arunachalam. 2002. “Balancing Traditional Jhum Cultivation with Modern Agroforestry in Eastern Himalaya – A Biodiversity Hot Spot.” Current Science 83 (July): 117–18.

Klamath County Museum. 2019. “Klamath Heritage: Feeding Bears at Crater Lake.” Klamath Falls News. May 19, 2019. https://www.klamathfallsnews.org/news/klamath-heritage-feeding-bears-at-crater-lake.

“Klamath River Basin | NOAA Fisheries.” 2021. NOAA. January 6, 2021. https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/west-coast/habitat-conservation/klamath-river-basin.

Klein, Letícia, and Thiago Medaglia. 2020. “In a Drier Amazon, Small Farmers and Researchers Work Together to Reduce Fire Damage.” Mongabay Environmental News, October 21, 2020. https://news.mongabay.com/2020/10/in-a-drier-amazon-small-farmer-and-researchers-work-together-to-reduce-fire-damage/.

Kodas, Michael. 2020. “Huge Western Fires in 1910 Changed US Wildfire Policy. Will Today’s Conflagrations Do the Same?” Inside Climate News (blog). September 11, 2020. https://insideclimatenews.org/news/11092020/western-wildfires-big-blowup-forest-policy/.

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Overstory

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Wilding

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Mulkey, Stephen. 2020. “The Scientific Narrative about the Climate and Biosphere Is Mostly Useless.” Medium (blog). July 15, 2020. https://envcentury.medium.com/the-scientific-narrative-about-the-climate-and-biosphere-is-mostly-useless-7daaab3b5a77.

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Pearce, Fred. 2021. “Species or Ecosystems: How Best to Restore the Natural World?” Yale E360. April 27, 2021. https://e360.yale.edu/features/species-or-ecosystems-how-best-to-restore-the-natural-world.

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Robbins, Jim. 2018. “Animals Are Losing Their Vagility, or Ability to Roam Freely.” The New York Times, February 19, 2018, sec. Science. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/02/19/science/migration-animals-west.html.

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Safina, Carl. n.d. “The Real Case for Saving Species: We Don’t Need Them, But They Need Us.” Yale E360. Accessed August 16, 2021. https://e360.yale.edu/features/the-real-case-for-saving-species-we-dont-need-them-but-they-need-us.

Saint Louis University. 2019. “Elephant Extinction Will Raise Carbon Dioxide Levels in Atmosphere: As Ecosystem Engineers, Forest Elephants’ Dining Habits Are Climate-Friendly.” ScienceDaily. July 25, 2019. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/07/190725100433.htm.

Schmachtenberger, Daniel. 2017. “Gut Health and the Microbiome with Zach Bush, MD.” Neurohacker Collective. December 28, 2017. https://neurohacker.com/gut-health-and-the-microbiome-with-zach-bush-md.

science, Lorraine Boissoneault is a Chicago-based journalist who writes about, history, outdoor adventure for publications like Smithsonian Magazine, The Atlantic, Hakai Magazine, Great Lakes Now, Playboy She is the author of the narrative nonfiction book "The Last Voyageurs", and a finalist for the Chicago Book of the Year award http://twitter com/boissolm http://www.lboissoneault.com. 2020. “The Call of the Wild: Using Sound to Help Imperiled Species and Ecosystems • The Revelator.” The Revelator (blog). March 2, 2020. https://therevelator.org/sound-help-species-ecosystems/.

Sender, Ron, Shai Fuchs, and Ron Milo. 2016. “Are We Really Vastly Outnumbered? Revisiting the Ratio of Bacterial to Host Cells in Humans.” Cell 164 (January): 337–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2016.01.013.

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Strassburg, Bernardo B. N., Alvaro Iribarrem, Hawthorne L. Beyer, Carlos Leandro Cordeiro, Renato Crouzeilles, Catarina C. Jakovac, André Braga Junqueira, et al. 2020. “Global Priority Areas for Ecosystem Restoration.” Nature 586 (7831): 724–29. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2784-9.

Strickland, Michael S., Dror Hawlena, Aspen Reese, Mark A. Bradford, and Oswald J. Schmitz. 2013. “Trophic Cascade Alters Ecosystem Carbon Exchange.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110 (27): 11035–38. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1305191110.

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Thomas, Andrew Maltez, and Nicola Segata. 2019. “Multiple Levels of the Unknown in Microbiome Research.” BMC Biology 17 (48). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12915-019-0667-z.

Tierney, Braden T., Zhen Yang, Jacob M. Luber, Marc Beaudin, Marsha C. Wibowo, Christina Baek, Eleanor Mehlenbacher, Chirag J. Patel, and Aleksandar D. Kostic. 2019. “The Landscape of Genetic Content in the Gut and Oral Human Microbiome.” Cell Host & Microbe 26 (2): 283-295.e8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2019.07.008.

Tree, Isabella. 2018. “Creating a Mess – The Knepp Rewilding Project.” In Practice, June 2018. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/595ca91bebbd1a1d0aaab285/t/5b1af97b1ae6cfcbab41befa/1528494463789/InPractice100_Jun2018_Knepp+%28003%29.pdf.

Trinh, Pauline, Jesse R. Zaneveld, Sarah Safranek, and Peter M. Rabinowitz. 2018. “One Health Relationships Between Human, Animal, and Environmental Microbiomes: A Mini-Review.” Frontiers in Public Health 6 (August): 235. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2018.00235.

University of Adelaide. 2020. “Microbiome Rewilding: Biodiverse Urban Green Spaces Strengthen Human Immune Systems.” May 25, 2020. https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-05-microbiome-rewilding-biodiverse-urban-green.html.

University of Gothenburg. 2020. “Humans, Not Climate, Have Driven Rapidly Rising Mammal Extinction Rate.” ScienceDaily. September 9, 2020. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/09/200909100244.htm.

University of New South Wales. 2019. “Leaving Microbes out of Climate Change Conversation Has Major Consequences, Experts Warn.” ScienceDaily. June 18, 2019. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/06/190618113126.htm.

Velasquez-Manoff, Moises. 2012. An Epidemic of Absence: A New Way of Understanding Allergies and Autoimmune Diseases. Reprint edition. Scribner.

Welch, Craig. 2017. “Half of All Species Are on the Move—And We’re Feeling It.” National Geographic. April 27, 2017. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/article/climate-change-species-migration-disease.

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“Which Countries Are Still Whaling?” 2014. IFAW. March 17, 2014. https://www.ifaw.org/news/which-countries-are-still-whaling.

“Wild.” n.d. In Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster. Accessed September 29, 2021. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/wild.

Wilmers, Christopher C., James A. Estes, Matthew Edwards, Kristin L. Laidre, and Brenda Konar. 2012. “Do Trophic Cascades Affect the Storage and Flux of Atmospheric Carbon? An Analysis of Sea Otters and Kelp Forests.” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 10 (8): 409–15. https://doi.org/10.1890/110176.

Wilmers, Christopher C., and Oswald J. Schmitz. 2016. “Effects of Gray Wolf-Induced Trophic Cascades on Ecosystem Carbon Cycling.” Ecosphere 7 (10): e01501. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.1501.

Yoon, Mi Young, and Sang Sun Yoon. 2018. “Disruption of the Gut Ecosystem by Antibiotics.” Yonsei Medical Journal 59 (1): 4–12. https://doi.org/10.3349/ymj.2018.59.1.4.

Zhang, Sheng, and De-Chang Chen. 2019. “Facing a New Challenge: The Adverse Effects of Antibiotics on Gut Microbiota and Host Immunity.” Chinese Medical Journal 132 (10): 1135–38. https://doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000000245.

Zimmer, Carl. 2019. “A Billion-Year-Old Fungus May Hold Clues to Life’s Arrival on Land.” The New York Times, May 22, 2019, sec. Science. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/22/science/fungi-fossils-plants.html.

Zinöcker, Marit K., and Inge A. Lindseth. 2018. “The Western Diet–Microbiome-Host Interaction and Its Role in Metabolic Disease.” Nutrients 10 (3): 365. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030365.

Trophic Cascades

Archibald, Catherine J. 2005. “Overview of the Recovery of the Gray Wolf Under the Endangered Species Act.” Animal Legal & Historical Center. 2005. https://www.animallaw.info/article/overview-recovery-gray-wolf-under-endangered-species-act.

Barton, M. 2005. “Restoration or Destruction: The Controversy over Wolf Reintroduction.” Journal of Young Investigators. http://www.jyi.org/issue/restoration-or-destruction-the-controversy-over-wolf-reintroduction.

“Bee Footprints.” 2019. Entomology Today. 2019. https://entomologytoday.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/Bee-footprints.jpg.

Beschta, R., and W. Ripple. 2012. “Berry-Producing Shrub Characteristics Following Wolf Reintroduction in Yellowstone National Park.” Forest Ecology and Management 276: 132–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2012.03.035.

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Bishop, Anne L., and Richard P. Bishop. 2014. “Resistance of wild African ungulates to foraging by red-billed oxpeckers (Buphagus erythrorhynchus): evidence that this behaviour modulates a potentially parasitic interaction.” African Journal of Ecology 52 (1): 103–10. https://doi.org/10.1111/aje.12093.

Bonfante, Paola, and Andrea Genre. 2010. “Mechanisms Underlying Beneficial Plant–Fungus Interactions in Mycorrhizal Symbiosis.” Nature Communications 1 (July): 48. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms1046.

Burkhalter, Erika. 2019. “A Trophic Cascade in My Own Backyard.” Age of Awareness (blog). December 3, 2019. https://medium.com/age-of-awareness/a-trophic-cascade-in-my-own-backyard-a38f7bd16116.

Carpenter, Stephen. 2020. “Trophic Cascade.” Encyclopedia Britannica. May 30, 2020. https://www.britannica.com/science/trophic-cascade.

Carroll, Sean B. 2016. “The Ecologist Who Threw Starfish.” Nautilus (blog). March 10, 2016. http://nautil.us/issue/34/adaptation/the-ecologist-who-threw-starfish.

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Chadwick, Douglas. 2010. “Wolf Wars.” National Geographic, March 1, 2010. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/article/wolf-wars.

Cosier, Susan. 2010. “Reintroducing Wolves into National Parks Could Restore Ecosystems.” Audobon. 2010.

Cunningham, Conor. 2020. “Survival of the Fittest.” In Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/science/survival-of-the-fittest.

Darwin, Charles. 1868. Animals and Plants Under Domestication. London: John Murray. http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?pageseq=21&itemID=F877.1&viewtype=text.

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Davidson, Ana D, James K Detling, and James H Brown. 2012. “Ecological Roles and Conservation Challenges of Social, Burrowing, Herbivorous Mammals in the World’s Grasslands.” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 10 (9): 477–86. https://doi.org/10.1890/110054.

Denchak, Melissa. 2019. “Keystone Species 101.” NRDC. September 9, 2019. https://www.nrdc.org/stories/keystone-species-101.

Dykstra, Peter. 2020. “Bringing the Wolves Back.” EHN, March 22, 2020. https://www.ehn.org/yellowstone-wolves-recovery-2645548172.html.

Erlandson, Jon  M., Michael  H. Graham, Bruce  J. Bourque, Debra Corbett, James  A. Estes, and Robert  S. Steneck. 2007. “The Kelp Highway Hypothesis: Marine Ecology, the Coastal Migration Theory, and the Peopling of the Americas.” The Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology 2 (2): 161–74. https://doi.org/10.1080/15564890701628612.

Eschner, Kat. 2017. “Those Little Birds On The Backs Of Rhinos Actually Drink Blood.” Smithsonian Magazine, September 22, 2017. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/those-little-birds-backs-rhinos-actually-drink-blood-180964912/.

Estes, James A., and John F. Palmisano. 1974. “Sea Otters: Their Role in Structuring Nearshore Communities.” Science 185 (4156): 1058–60. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.185.4156.1058.

Evan. 2015. “The Threat of Reintroduced Wolves to Livestock in Yellowstone.” Debating Science (blog). December 2, 2015. https://blogs.umass.edu/natsci397a-eross/the-threat-of-reintroduced-wolves-to-livestock-in-yellowstone/.

Falk, Dan. 2020. “The Complicated Legacy of Herbert Spencer, the Man Who Coined ‘Survival of the Fittest.’” Smithsonian Magazine, April 29, 2020. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/herbert-spencer-survival-of-the-fittest-180974756/.

Fritts, S., E. Bangs, J. Fontaine, M. Johnson, M. Philips, E. Koch, and J. Gunson. 1997. “Planning and Implementing a Reintroduction of Wolves to Yellowstone National Park and Central Idaho.” Restoration Ecology 5 (1): 7–27. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1526-100X.1997.09702.x.

George, J. 2006. “Wolf Attack a Tragic, Cautionary Tale.” San Francisco Gate. 2006. http://www.sfgate.com/homeandgarden/article/Wolf-attack-a-tragic-cautionary-tale-2543491.php.

“Government Data Confirm That Wolves Have a Negligible Effect on U.S. Cattle & Sheep Industries.” 2019. https://www.humanesociety.org/sites/default/files/docs/HSUS-Wolf-Livestock-6.Mar_.19Final.pdf.

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Heithaus, Michael R. 2001. “The Biology of Tiger Sharks, Galeocerdo Cuvier, in Shark Bay, Western Australia: Sex Ratio, Size Distribution, Diet, and Seasonal Changes in Catch Rates.” Environmental Biology of Fishes 61 (1): 25–36. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1011021210685.

Heithaus, Michael R., A. J. Wirsing, L. M. Dill, Michael R. Heithaus, A. J. Wirsing, and L. M. Dill. 2012. “The Ecological Importance of Intact Top-Predator Populations: A Synthesis of 15 Years of Research in a Seagrass Ecosystem.” Marine and Freshwater Research 63 (11): 1039–50. https://doi.org/10.1071/MF12024.

“Helping Ranchers Coexist With Wolves.” n.d. Defenders of Wildlife. Accessed September 20, 2021. https://defenders.org/helping-ranchers-coexist-wolves.

Irfan, Umair. 2020. “‘Extinction Breeds Extinctions’: How Losing One Species Can Wipe out Many More.” Vox. June 6, 2020. https://www.vox.com/2020/6/6/21280720/endangered-species-extinction-ecosystem-climate-change-biodiversity-crisis.

Kauffman, Matthew J., Jedediah F. Brodie, and Erik S. Jules. 2010. “Are Wolves Saving Yellowstone’s Aspen? A Landscape-Level Test of a Behaviorally Mediated Trophic Cascade.” Ecology 91 (9): 2742–55. https://doi.org/10.1890/09-1949.1.

“Keystone Species.” 2019. National Geographic Society. September 13, 2019. http://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/keystone-species/.

“Keystone Species.” 2021. In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Keystone_species&oldid=1046654590.

Levy, Sharon. 2020a. “Absent Wolves, Ecosystems Changed. Can New Wolves Restore Things?” April 29, 2020. https://undark.org/2020/04/29/wolf-reintroduction-trophic-cascades-colorado/.

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Linnell, John, Reidar Andersen, Andersone, and Linas Balciauskas. 2002. The Fear of Wolves: A Review of Wolf Attacks on Humans. Edited by J Linnell. NINA NIKU. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/236330045_The_fear_of_wolves_A_review_of_wolf_attacks_on_humans.

Martin, G. 2014. “Meat Prices Going up & Wolf Kill.” http://www.aginfo.net/AginfoReportView.cfm?reportid=28928.

McElligott, Alan, Ivan Maggini, Lorenz Hunziker, and Barbara König. 2004. “Interactions between Red-Billed Oxpeckers and Black Rhinos in Captivity.” Zoo Biology 23 (September): 347–54. https://doi.org/10.1002/zoo.20013.

Middleton, Arthur D., Matthew J. Kauffman, Douglas E. McWhirter, John G. Cook, Rachel C. Cook, Abigail A. Nelson, Michael D. Jimenez, and Robert W. Klaver. 2013. “Animal Migration amid Shifting Patterns of Phenology and Predation: Lessons from a Yellowstone Elk Herd.” Ecology 94 (6): 1245–56. https://doi.org/10.1890/11-2298.1.

Mogerman, Josh. 2010. “Canis Lupus Listed: Wolves Regain Endangered Species Status.” NRDC. August 6, 2010. https://www.nrdc.org/media/2010/100806.

Monbiot, George. 2014. Feral: Rewilding the Land, the Sea, and Human Life. London: University of Chicago Press. https://press.uchicago.edu/ucp/books/book/chicago/F/bo19341756.html.

Musiani, M., C. Mamo, L. Boitani, S. Breck, C. Callaghan, C. Gates, and G. Volpi. 2003. “Wolf Depredation Trends and the Use of Fladry Barriers to Protect Livestock in Western North America.Conservation.” Biology 17 (6): 1538–47. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2003.00063.x.

“Mutualistic Relationships.” n.d. New England Complex Systems Institute. Accessed October 14, 2021. https://necsi.edu/mutualistic-relationships.

Nelson, Abigail, Matthew J. Kauffman, Arthur D. Middleton, Mike Jimenez, Douglas McWhirter, Jarrett Barber, and Ken Gerow. 2012. “Elk Migration Patterns and Human Activity Influence Wolf Habitat Use in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.” Ecological Applications. https://doi.org/10.1890/11-1829.1.

“Northern Rocky Mountains Gray Wolf.” n.d. Center for Biological Diversity. Accessed October 14, 2021. https://www.biologicaldiversity.org/species/mammals/northern_Rocky_Mountains_gray_wolf/index.html.

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“Pollinators - Hummingbirds.” n.d. National Park Service. Accessed October 14, 2021. https://www.nps.gov/articles/hummingbirds.htm.

“Prairie Dog.” n.d. Defenders of Wildlife. Accessed September 23, 2021. https://defenders.org/wildlife/prairie-dog.

Ripple, William J., Robert L. Beschta, Jennifer K. Fortin, and Charles T. Robbins. 2014. “Trophic Cascades from Wolves to Grizzly Bears in Yellowstone.” Journal of Animal Ecology 83 (1): 223–33. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12123.

“Rocky Mountain Wolf Project.” n.d. Rocky Mountain Wolf Project. Accessed September 4, 2021. https://www.rockymountainwolfproject.org/.

Silliman, Brian R, and Christine Angelini. n.d. “Trophic Cascades Across Diverse Plant Ecosystems.” Nature Education Knowledge 3 (10): 44.

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Wagner, Stephen C. 2010. “Keystone Species.” Nature Education Knowledge 3 (10): 51.

Ward, Tamara. 2019. “How Artificial Intelligence Could Change Conservation.” E&E News, November 2019. https://www.eenews.net/greenwire/stories/1061610079/search.

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“Wildlife.” 2013. Yellowstone National Park. 2013. http://www.yellowstonenationalpark.com/wildlife.htm.

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“Wolf Restoration - Yellowstone National Park.” n.d. National Park Service. Accessed September 23, 2021. https://www.nps.gov/yell/learn/nature/wolf-restoration.htm.

Yong, Ed. 2013. “The Man Whose Dynasty Changed Ecology.” Scientific American. January 16, 2013. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-man-whose-dynasty-changed-ecology/.

Zanette, Liana Y., Emma C. Hobbs, Lauren E. Witterick, Scott A. MacDougall-Shackleton, and Michael Clinchy. 2019. “Predator-Induced Fear Causes PTSD-like Changes in the Brains and Behaviour of Wild Animals.” Scientific Reports 9 (August): 11474. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-47684-6.

Grazing Ecology

Alexander, R. McN. 1993. “The Relative Merits of Foregut and Hindgut Fermentation.” Journal of Zoology 231 (3): 391–401. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1993.tb01927.x.

Anderson, Roger C. 2006. “Evolution and Origin of the Central Grassland of North America: Climate, Fire, and Mammalian Grazers.” The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 133 (4): 626–47.

Angelini, Christine, Schuyler Montfrans, Marc Hensel, Qiang He, and Brian Silliman. 2018. “The Importance of an Underestimated Grazer under Climate Change: How Crab Density, Consumer Competition, and Physical Stress Affect Salt Marsh Resilience.” Oecologia 187 (6). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-018-4112-8.

Augustine, David J., Samuel J. McNaughton, and Douglas A. Frank. 2003. “Feedbacks Between Soil Nutrients and Large Herbivores in a Managed Savanna Ecosystem.” Ecological Applications 13 (5): 1325–37. https://doi.org/10.1890/02-5283.

Barkham, Patrick. 2018. “The Magical Wilderness Farm: Raising Cows among the Weeds at Knepp.” The Guardian, June 15, 2018, sec. Environment. http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/jun/15/the-magical-wilderness-farm-raising-cows-among-the-weeds-at-knepp.

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Rewilding Pollinators

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Griscom, Bronson W., Justin Adams, Peter W. Ellis, Richard A. Houghton, Guy Lomax, Daniela A. Miteva, William H. Schlesinger, et al. 2017. “Natural Climate Solutions.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 114 (44): 11645–50. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1710465114.

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Hemes, Kyle S., Samuel D. Chamberlain, Elke Eichelmann, Tyler Anthony, Amy Valach, Daphne Szutu, Joe Verfaillie, Whendee L. Silver, and Dennis D. Baldocchi. 2019. “Assessing the Carbon and Climate Benefit of Restoring Degraded Agricultural Peat Soils to Managed Wetlands.” Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 268 (April): 202–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2019.01.017.

Hemes, Kyle S., Samuel D. Chamberlain, Elke Eichelmann, Sara H. Knox, and Dennis D. Baldocchi. 2018. “A Biogeochemical Compromise: The High Methane Cost of Sequestering Carbon in Restored Wetlands.” Geophysical Research Letters 45 (12): 6081–91. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018gl077747.

Hengl, Tomislav, and Ichsani Wheeler. 2018. “Soil Organic Carbon Stock in Kg/M2 for 5 Standard Depth Intervals (0–10, 10–30, 30–60, 60–100 and 100–200 Cm) at 250 m Resolution.” Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2536040.

“High Biodiversity.” n.d. The Wetlands Initiative. Accessed October 5, 2021. http://www.wetlands-initiative.org/high-biodiversity.

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Höper, Heinrich, J.P.Cagampan Jürgen Augustin, M. Drösler, Lars Lundin, Eddy Moors, Harri Vasander, James Waddington, and David Wilson. 2008. Restoration of Peatlands and Greenhouse Gas Balances. Edited by Maria Strack. Finland: International Peat Society. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/37792364_Restoration_of_peatlands_and_greenhouse_gas_balances.

Horwath, William, and Yakov Kuzyakov, eds. 2018. Climate Change Impacts on Soil Processes and Ecosystem Properties,. 1st Edition. Vol. Volume 35. Elsevier. https://www.elsevier.com/books/climate-change-impacts-on-soil-processes-and-ecosystem-properties/horwath/978-0-444-63865-6.

“How the Midwest Lost Its Wetlands.” n.d. The Wetlands Initiative. Accessed September 21, 2021. http://www.wetlands-initiative.org/how-the-midwest-lost-its-wetlands.

Huber, Marguerite. 2014. “Wetlands: Earth’s Kidneys.” The EPA Blog (blog). June 19, 2014. https://blog.epa.gov/2014/06/19/wetlands-earths-kidneys/.

Hutchison, James, Andrea Manica, Ruth Swetnam, Andrew Balmford, and Mark Spalding. 2013. “Predicting Global Patterns in Mangrove Forest Biomass.” Conservation Letters 7 (3): 233–40. https://doi.org/10.1111/conl.12060.

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Ionova, Ana. 2020. “Fires in the Pantanal: ‘We Are Facing a Scenario Now That Is Catastrophic.’” Mongabay Environmental News, August 6, 2020. https://news.mongabay.com/2020/08/fires-in-the-pantanal-we-are-facing-a-scenario-now-that-is-catastrophic/.

Kaplan, Matt. 2008. “Fish Help to Spread Forest Seeds.” Nature, February. https://doi.org/10.1038/news.2008.555.

Kolka, Randall, Carl Trettin, Went Tang, Ken Krauss, Sheel Bansal, Judith Drexler, and Kimberly Wickland. 2018. “Second State of the Carbon Cycle Report - Chapter 13: Terrestrial Wetlands.” Carbon: U.S. Global Change Research Program. https://carbon2018.globalchange.gov/chapter/13/.

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Libonati, Renata, Carlos C. DaCamara, Leonardo F. Peres, Lino A. Sander de Carvalho, and Letícia C. Garcia. 2020. “Rescue Brazil’s Burning Pantanal Wetlands.” Nature 588 (7837): 217–19. https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-03464-1.

Londoño, Ernesto. 2017. “Brazil Wavers on Environment, and Earth’s Largest Wetland Starts to Wither.” The New York Times, December 23, 2017, sec. World. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/12/23/world/americas/brazil-pantanal-wetlands-michel-temer.html.

Marengo, Jose A., Ana P. Cunha, Luz Adriana Cuartas, Karinne R. Deusdará Leal, Elisangela Broedel, Marcelo E. Seluchi, Camila Miranda Michelin, et al. 2021. “Extreme Drought in the Brazilian Pantanal in 2019–2020: Characterization, Causes, and Impacts.” Frontiers in Water 3: 13. https://doi.org/10.3389/frwa.2021.639204.

Martino, Ronald L., and Stephen F. Greb. 2009. “Walking Trails of the Giant Terrestrial Arthropod Arthropleura from the Upper Carboniferous of Kentucky.” Journal of Paleontology 83 (1): 140–46. https://doi.org/10.1666/08-093R.1.

Mcowen, Chris, Lauren Weatherdon, Jan-Willem Bochove, Emma Sullivan, Simon Blyth, Christoph Zockler, Damon Stanwell-Smith, et al. 2017. “A Global Map of Saltmarshes.” Biodiversity Data Journal 5 (March): e11764. https://doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.5.e11764.

Mega, Emiliano Rodríguez. 2020. “‘Apocalyptic’ Fires Are Ravaging the World’s Largest Tropical Wetland.” Nature 586 (7827): 20–21. https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-02716-4.

Mitsch, W.J., U. Mander, B. Bernal, R. Lal, and L. Zhang. 2018. “The Role of Wetland Processes in the Global Carbon Cycle and Climate Change.” American Geophysical Union 41 (December). https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018AGUFM.B41E2755M/abstract.

Moomaw, William R., G. L. Chmura, Gillian T. Davies, C. M. Finlayson, B. A. Middleton, Susan M. Natali, J. E. Perry, N. Roulet, and Ariana E. Sutton-Grier. 2018. “Wetlands In a Changing Climate: Science, Policy and Management.” Wetlands 38 (April): 183–205. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13157-018-1023-8.

Nations, United. n.d. “Protection and Preservation of Wetlands.” UN Sustainable Development. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/partnership/?p=11874.

Nel, André, Jakub Prokop, Martina Pecharová, Michael S. Engel, and Romain Garrouste. 2018. “Palaeozoic Giant Dragonflies Were Hawker Predators.” Scientific Reports 8 (August): 12141. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-30629-w.

O’Doherty, Caroline. 2021. “Bord Na Móna Confirms It Has Ended Peat Harvesting for Good.” Independent.Ie, January 14, 2021. https://www.independent.ie/news/bord-na-mona-confirms-it-has-ended-peat-harvesting-for-good-39970397.html.

Olson, David M., Eric Dinerstein, Eric D. Wikramanayake, Neil D. Burgess, George V. N. Powell, Emma C. Underwood, Jennifer A. D’amico, et al. 2001. “Terrestrial Ecoregions of the World: A New Map of Life on Earth: A New Global Map of Terrestrial Ecoregions Provides an Innovative Tool for Conserving Biodiversity.” BioScience 51 (11): 933–38. https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2001)051[0933:TEOTWA]2.0.CO;2.

Oviedo, Gonzalo, and Mariam Kenza Ali. 2018. “The Relationship of Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities with Wetlands.” Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. https://www.ramsar.org/sites/default/files/documents/library/indigenous_peoples_local_communities_wetlands_e.pdf.

Page, Susan E., John O. Rieley, and Christopher J. Banks. 2011. “Global and Regional Importance of the Tropical Peatland Carbon Pool.” Global Change Biology 17 (2): 798–818. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02279.x.

“Pantanal.” n.d. The Nature Conservancy. Accessed October 5, 2021. https://www.nature.org/en-us/get-involved/how-to-help/places-we-protect/pantanal/.

“Park Statistics - Grand Teton National Park.” 2019. National Park Service. April 12, 2019. https://www.nps.gov/grte/learn/management/statistics.htm.

Pearce, Melanie, and Luke Wong. 2017. “Why Do Pelicans Only Land in Some Inland Areas?” ABC News, October 18, 2017. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-10-19/curious-central-west-why-pelicans-prefer-some-places/9054518.

“Peatlands.” n.d. Western Pennsylvania Conservancy. Accessed September 15, 2021. https://waterlandlife.org/wildlife-pnhp/special-places-2/peatlands/.

Planet Earth II. 2017. Grasslands. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZNJY7uIPXog.

Pollastri, Tatiana, and David Biller. 2021. “As Brazil’s Wetlands Burned, Government Did Little to Help.” AP NEWS, April 26, 2021. https://apnews.com/article/brazil-wetlands-animals-wildlife-latin-america-242091863afb68509456bd8440caa8b9.

“Project Benefits.” n.d. Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority. https://coastal.la.gov/our-work/key-initiatives/diversion-program/project-benefits/.

“Regional Highlights - Global Fire Emissions Database.” 2020. Global Fire Data. 2020. http://www.globalfiredata.org/regional.html#matogrosso.

“Results of the 2018 Bioblitz.” n.d. The Wetlands Initiative. Accessed October 5, 2021. http://www.wetlands-initiative.org/new-bioblitz-results.

Richardson, Curtis J. 2018. “Mesopotamian Marshes of Iraq.” The Wetland Book, May, 1685–95. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-4001-3_70.

“Rift Valley.” 2015. National Geographic. June 15, 2015. https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/rift-valley/.

Robbins, Jim. 2017. “Why the World’s Rivers Are Losing Sediment and Why It Matters.” Yale E360. June 20, 2017. https://e360.yale.edu/features/why-the-worlds-rivers-are-losing-sediment-and-why-it-matters.

“Russian Federation.” 2018. IAEA. 2018. https://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Publications/PDF/cnpp2018/countryprofiles/Russia/Russia.htm.

Sahrawat, Lal and Kanwar. 2004. “Terminal Electron Acceptors for Controlling Methane Emissions from Submerged Rice Soils.” Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 35 (9): 1401–13. https://doi.org/10.1081/CSS-120037554.

Sanderman, Jonathan. 2019. “Global Mangrove Soil Carbon: Dataset and Spatial Maps.” Harvard Dataverse. https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/OCYUIT.

Sanderman, Jonathan, Tomislav Hengl, Greg Fiske, Kylen Solvik, Maria Fernanda Adame, Lisa Benson, Jacob J. Bukoski, et al. 2018. “A Global Map of Mangrove Forest Soil Carbon at 30m Spatial Resolution.” Environmental Research Letters 13 (5): 055002. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aabe1c.

Simard, M., T. Fatoyinbo, C. Smetanka, V. H. Rivera-Monroy, E. Castaneda, N. Thomas, and T. Van Der Stocken. 2019. “Global Mangrove Distribution, Aboveground Biomass, and Canopy Height.” ORNL DAAC, May. https://doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1665.

Slater, Ben. 2011. “Fossil Focus: Coal Swamps.” Palaeontology [Online] (blog). September 1, 2011. https://www.palaeontologyonline.com/articles/2011/fossil-focus-coal-swamps/.

“Soaring.” 2009. Unreal Nature (blog). May 2, 2009. https://unrealnature.wordpress.com/2009/05/02/soaring/.

Sousa, Luis M. de, Laura Poggio, Niels H. Batjes, Gerard B. M. Heuvelink, Bas Kempen, Eloi Riberio, and David Rossiter. 2020. “SoilGrids 2.0: Producing Quality-Assessed Soil Information for Theglobe.” Preprint. Soils and the natural environment. https://doi.org/10.5194/soil-2020-65.

Sparrow, Jeff. 2020. “Undraining the Swamp: How Rewilders Have Reclaimed Golf Courses and Waterways.” The Guardian, September 10, 2020, sec. Environment. http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/sep/11/undraining-the-swamp-how-rewilders-have-reclaimed-golf-courses-and-waterways.

Spawn, S. A., and H. K. Gibbs. 2020. “Global Aboveground and Belowground Biomass Carbon Density Maps for the Year 2010.” ORNL DAAC, March. https://doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1763.

Steimel, Dirck. 2020. “Farmers See Value in Wetlands.” Iowa Farm Bureau. May 18, 2020. https://www.iowafarmbureau.com/Article/Farmers-see-value-in-wetlands.

Szalay, Jessie. 2017. “Lake Baikal: World’s Largest, Deepest Lake.” Live Science. January 27, 2017. https://www.livescience.com/57653-lake-baikal-facts.html.

Tcvetkov, P.S. 2017. “The History, Present Status and Future Prospects of the Russian Fuel Peat Industry.” Mires and Peat 19 (14): 1–12. https://doi.org/10.19189/MaP.2016.OMB.256.

Telesca, Luca, Andrea Belluscio, Alessandro Criscoli, Giandomenico Ardizzone, Eugenia T. Apostolaki, Simonetta Fraschetti, Michele Gristina, et al. 2015. “Seagrass Meadows (Posidonia Oceanica) Distribution and Trajectories of Change.” Scientific Reports 5 (1): 12505. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep12505.

Texas Parks and Wildlife. 2017. Wondrous Wetlands | Whiteboard. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V-aQLwnJKWc&t=38s.

“The Carboniferous Period.” n.d. UC Museum of Paleontology. Accessed October 14, 2021. https://ucmp.berkeley.edu/carboniferous/carboniferous.php.

“The Importance of Wetlands.” n.d. Ramsar. Accessed October 5, 2021. https://www.ramsar.org/about/the-importance-of-wetlands.

The Secrets of Nature. 2015. Bohemia - A Year in the Wetlands. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gwk71FP19K4.

“The Story of Peat in Ireland.” n.d. Ireland 2050. Accessed October 14, 2021. http://ireland2050.ie/past/peat/.

Thomas, Nathan, Richard Lucas, Peter Bunting, Andrew Hardy, Ake Rosenqvist, and Marc Simard. 2017. “Distribution and Drivers of Global Mangrove Forest Change, 1996–2010.” Edited by Shijo Joseph. PLOS ONE 12 (6): e0179302. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0179302.

Thomson, Jimmy. 2020. “One Key Solution to the World’s Climate Woes? Canada’s Natural Landscapes.” The Narwhal (blog). July 8, 2020. https://thenarwhal.ca/climate-canadas-natural-landscapes/.

Tillyard, Robin John. 1917a. The Biology of Dragonflies: (Odonata Or Paraneuroptera). CUP Archive. https://books.google.com.sg/books?id=J584AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA324&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false.

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Tiner, R. W. 2009. “Ecology of Wetlands: Classification Systems.” In Encyclopedia of Inland Waters, 516–25. Elsevier. https://www.sciencedirect.com/referencework/9780123706263/encyclopedia-of-inland-waters.

Toner, Emily. 2018. “Power from Peat—More Polluting than Coal—Is on Its Way out in Ireland.” Science, December 12, 2018. https://www.science.org/content/article/power-peat-more-polluting-coal-its-way-out-ireland.

Twombly, Matt. 2020. “People of the Pantanal.” World Wildlife Magazine, 2020. https://www.worldwildlife.org/magazine/issues/spring-2020/articles/people-of-the-pantanal.

“Types of Peatlands.” n.d. International Peatland Society. Accessed September 15, 2021. https://peatlands.org/peatlands/types-of-peatlands/.

UNEP-WCMC, and Frederick T. Short. 2005. “Global Distribution of Seagrasses.” WMS; KML (.kml); Vector (polygon); Vector (point). United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). https://doi.org/10.34892/X6R3-D211.

University of Minnesota. 2021. “Protecting Local Water Has Global Benefits.” ScienceDaily. May 11, 2021. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/05/210511092001.htm.

USGCRP. 2018. “Second State of the Carbon Cycle Report.” Washington D.C.: U.S. Global Change Research Program. https://carbon2018.globalchange.govhttps://carbon2018.globalchange.gov/chapter/13.

Voiland, Adam. 2020. “Fires Char the Pantanal.” NASA Earth Observatory. August 27, 2020. https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/147269/fires-char-the-pantanal.

Wagner, Warren H, Ernest M Gifford, and John T Mickel. 2016. “Equisetopsida.” In Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/plant/Equisetidae.

“Water and Sanitation.” 2018. United Nations Sustainable Development. 2018. https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/water-and-sanitation/.

Weikle, Brandie. 2021. “Canada’s Swamps Are the Secret Weapon to Fighting Climate Change, Say Experts | CBC Radio.” CBC. May 12, 2021. https://www.cbc.ca/radio/whatonearth/canada-s-swamps-are-the-secret-weapon-to-fighting-climate-change-say-experts-1.6022340.

“Wetlands.” 2017. Reports and Assessments. EPA. November 2, 2017. https://www.epa.gov/report-environment/wetlands.

Wetlands: A Natural Solution to Climate Change. 2019. The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TRTVi32I0Rg.

“Wetlands and Indigenous Values.” 2016. Australian Government Department of the Environment. https://www.environment.gov.au/system/files/resources/b04e5e2a-4256-4548-974e-00f7d84670a9/files/factsheet-wetlands-indigenous-values.pdf.

“Wetlands in Russia.” n.d. Wetlands International Russia. https://russia.wetlands.org/wetlands/wetlands-in-russia/.

“Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar Sites).” n.d. Ramsar. Accessed October 14, 2021. https://www.ramsar.org/about/wetlands-of-international-importance-ramsar-sites.

“Wetlands: Why Should I Care?” 2015. Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. https://www.ramsar.org/sites/default/files/documents/library/factsheet1_why_should_i_care_0.pdf.

“Wetlands: Why Should I Care?” n.d. https://www.ramsar.org/sites/default/files/documents/library/factsheet1_why_should_i_care_0.pdf.

“What Is Biodiversity and Why Do We Need It?” 2020. WWT. July 12, 2020. https://www.wwt.org.uk/news-and-stories/blog/what-is-biodiversity-and-why-do-we-need-it.

“World of Change: Yellow River Delta.” 2010. NASA Earth Observatory. January 26, 2010. https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/world-of-change/YellowRiver.

Xu, Jiren, Paul J. Morris, Junguo Liu, and Joseph Holden. 2017. “PEATMAP: Refining Estimates of Global Peatland Distribution Based on a Meta-Analysis.” University of Leeds. https://archive.researchdata.leeds.ac.uk/251/.

Zhu, Changming, Xin Zhang, and Qiaohua Huang. 2018. “Four Decades of Estuarine Wetland Changes in the Yellow River Delta Based on Landsat Observations between 1973 and 2013.” Water 10 (7): 17–18. https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070933.

Beavers

“About Beavers.” 2019. Beavers: Wetlands & Wildlife. July 2, 2019. https://www.beaversww.org/about-beavers/.

Bailey, David R., Benjamin J. Dittbrenner, and Ken P. Yocom. 2019. “Reintegrating the North American Beaver (Castor Canadensis) in the Urban Landscape.” WIREs Water 6 (1): e1323. https://doi.org/10.1002/wat2.1323.

Baker, Bruce W., and Edward P. Hill. 2003. “Beaver (Castor Canadensis).” In Wild Mammals of North America: Biology, Management, and Conservation, edited by G. A. Feldhamer, B. C. Thompson, and J. A. Chapman, 2nd ed., 288–310. Baltimore, Maryland, USA: Johns Hopkins University Press. http://nebula.wsimg.com/da97f656b6eb1d536a53a4c21462cb4b?AccessKeyId=2CD06EEF7CF6FD29860F&disposition=0&alloworigin=1.

Dittbrenner, Benjamin J. 2019. “Restoration Potential of Beaver for Hydrological Resilience in a Changing Climate.” Thesis, University of Washington. https://digital.lib.washington.edu:443/researchworks/handle/1773/44263.

Goldfarb, Ben. 2018a. Eager: The Surprising, Secret Life of Beavers and Why They Matter. Chelsea Green Publishing.

———. 2018b. “They Will Build It.” BioGraphic (blog). November 22, 2018. https://www.biographic.com/they-will-build-it/.

———. 2018c. “In Praise of Urban Beavers.” Center for Humans & Nature. December 11, 2018. https://www.humansandnature.org/in-praise-of-urban-beavers.

Halley, Duncan, Frank Rosell, and Alexander Saveljev. 2012. “Population and Distribution of Eurasian Beaver (Castor Fiber).” Baltic Forestry, January.

“Leave It to Beavers.” 2014. PBS. April 9, 2014. https://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/leave-it-to-beavers-production-credits/8860/.

Müller-Schwarze, Dietland, and Lixing Sun. 2003. The Beaver: Natural History of a Wetlands Engineer. Cornell University Press.

Naiman, Robert J., Carol A. Johnston, and James C. Kelley. 1988. “Alteration of North American Streams by Beaver.” BioScience 38 (11): 753–62. https://doi.org/10.2307/1310784.

Pollock, Michael M., George R. Pess, Timothy J. Beechie, and David R. Montgomery. 2004. “The Importance of Beaver Ponds to Coho Salmon Production in the Stillaguamish River Basin, Washington, USA.” North American Journal of Fisheries Management 24 (3): 749–60. https://doi.org/10.1577/M03-156.1.

Seton, Earnest Thompson. 1929. Lives of Game Animals. Vol. 4. New York: Doubleday, Doran and Co.

“The Beaver Whisperers.” n.d. Earth Touch News Network. Accessed August 16, 2021. https://www.earthtouchnews.com//video-on-demand/the-beaver-whisperers/#.

White, H. Bryant, Thomas Decker, Michael J. O’Brien, John F. Organ, and Nathan M. Roberts. 2015. “Trapping and Furbearer Management in North American Wildlife Conservation.” The International Journal of Environmental Studies 72 (5): 756–69. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207233.2015.1019297.

Bioregions

abuckley. 2015. “Cascadia Graces the Cover of the 2015 Esri Map Book.” ArcGIS Blog (blog). May 22, 2015. https://www.esri.com/arcgis-blog/products/product/mapping/cascadia-graces-the-cover-of-the-2015-esri-map-book/.

Berg, Peter. 2002. “Bioregionalism.” Planet Drum. 2002. http://www.planetdrum.org/bioregion_bioregionalism_defined.htm#Bioregionalism.

Evanoff, Richard. 2017. “Bioregionalism: A Brief Introduction and Overview.” The Aoyama Journal of International Politics, Economics and Communication 99 (November): 11.

Garber, Megan. 2017. “What Does ‘Community’ Mean?” The Atlantic. July 3, 2017. https://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2017/07/what-does-community-mean/532518/.

“Global Safety Net.” n.d. Global Safety Net. Accessed August 12, 2021. http://www.globalsafetynet.app/viewer/.

Henkel, William B. 1993. “Cascadia: A State of (Various) Mind(s).” Chicago Review 39 (3/4): 110–18. https://doi.org/10.2307/25305728.

McCloskey, David. 2015. “Map of Cascadia.” Cascadia Institute. https://cascadia-institute.org/images/Cascadia-Map-big.png.

“One Earth.” n.d. One Earth. Accessed August 16, 2021. https://www.oneearth.org/bioregions/.

“Welcome to Salmon Nation.” n.d. Salmon Nation. Accessed August 12, 2021. https://salmonnation.net/.

Wilding

“Background | Knepp Wildland.” n.d. Knepp Wildland. Accessed September 29, 2021. https://knepp.co.uk/background.

Barkham, Patrick. 2018. “The Magical Wilderness Farm: Raising Cows among the Weeds at Knepp.” The Guardian, June 15, 2018, sec. Environment. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/jun/15/the-magical-wilderness-farm-raising-cows-among-the-weeds-at-knepp.

“Clay Soils: Plants For.” n.d. RHS. Accessed September 29, 2021. http://www.rhs.org.uk/advice/profile?pid=305.

Goodman, Pamela. 2020. “The Extraordinary Rewilding of Knepp Castle.” House & Garden, October 3, 2020. https://www.houseandgarden.co.uk/gallery/knepp-castle-in-sussex.

“Knepp Safaris.” n.d. Accessed September 29, 2021. https://www.kneppsafaris.co.uk/whats-on/.

“Rewiliding.” n.d. Knepp Wild Range Meat. Accessed September 29, 2021. https://www.kneppwildrangemeat.co.uk/rewilding.

Tree, Isabella. 2018a. “Creating a Mess – The Knepp Rewilding Project.” In Practice, June 2018. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/595ca91bebbd1a1d0aaab285/t/5b1af97b1ae6cfcbab41befa/1528494463789/InPractice100_Jun2018_Knepp+%28003%29.pdf.

———. 2018b. “We Need to Bring Back the Wildwoods of Britain to Fight Climate Change.” The Guardian, November 26, 2018, sec. Opinion. http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2018/nov/26/wildwoods-britain-climate-change-northern-forest.

———. 2019. Wilding: Returning Nature to Our Farm. New York Review Books.

———. 2020. “How Rewilding Brought Nature Back to England’s Knepp Estate.” Vogue, October 27, 2020. https://www.vogue.com/article/how-rewilding-brought-nature-back-to-englands-knepp-estate.

“Weald.” 2021. In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Weald&oldid=1046758118.

“Words of Wisdom: Exploring the ‘Muddy’ History of Sussex.” 2019. South Downs National Park. November 11, 2019. https://www.southdowns.gov.uk/sussex-mud/.

Wild Things

“A Quarter of Sharks and Rays Threatened with Extinction.” 2014. IUCN. January 21, 2014. https://www.iucn.org/content/a-quarter-sharks-and-rays-threatened-extinction.

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Berkunsky, I., P. Quillfeldt, D. J. Brightsmith, M. C. Abbud, J. M. R. E. Aguilar, U. Alemán-Zelaya, R. M. Aramburú, et al. 2017. “Current Threats Faced by Neotropical Parrot Populations.” Biological Conservation 214 (October): 278–87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2017.08.016.

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BirdLife International. 2016. “Colinus Virginianus.” IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, October. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22728956A95000808.en.

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Boutin, C., A. Baril, S. K. McCabe, P. A. Martin, and M. Guy. 2011. “The Value of Woody Hedgerows for Moth Diversity on Organic and Conventional Farms.” Environmental Entomology 40 (3): 560–69. https://doi.org/10.1603/EN10105.

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Carrington, Damian. 2019. “Plummeting Insect Numbers ‘Threaten Collapse of Nature.’” The Guardian, February 10, 2019, sec. US news. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/feb/10/plummeting-insect-numbers-threaten-collapse-of-nature.

“Common Birds Are Declining in North America.” n.d. BirdLife International. Accessed September 22, 2021. http://datazone.birdlife.org/sowb/casestudy/common-birds-are-declining-in-north-america.

Courchamp, Franck, Ivan Jaric, Céline Albert, Yves Meinard, William J. Ripple, and Guillaume Chapron. 2018. “The Paradoxical Extinction of the Most Charismatic Animals.” PLOS Biology 16 (4): e2003997. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2003997.

Cowles, Gregory. 2015. “Review: Carl Safina’s ‘Beyond Words’ Doesn’t Mince Any on Animal Abilities.” The New York Times, August 3, 2015, sec. Science. https://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/04/science/review-beyond-words-carl-safina.html.

Fitzpatrick, John W., and Nathan Senner. 2018. “Opinion | Shorebirds, the World’s Greatest Travelers, Face Extinction.” The New York Times, April 27, 2018, sec. Opinion. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/04/27/opinion/shorebirds-extinction-climate-change.html, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/04/27/opinion/shorebirds-extinction-climate-change.html.

Fobar, Rachel. 2018. “Japan Will Resume Commercial Whaling. Get the Facts.” Animals, December 26, 2018. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/article/japan-considers-leaving-international-whaling-commission.

Frick, Winifred F., Jacob F. Pollock, Alan C. Hicks, Kate E. Langwig, D. Scott Reynolds, Gregory G. Turner, Calvin M. Butchkoski, and Thomas H. Kunz. 2010. “An Emerging Disease Causes Regional Population Collapse of a Common North American Bat Species.” Science 329 (5992): 679–82. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1188594.

Hallmann, Caspar A., Martin Sorg, Eelke Jongejans, Henk Siepel, Nick Hofland, Heinz Schwan, Werner Stenmans, et al. 2017. “More than 75 Percent Decline over 27 Years in Total Flying Insect Biomass in Protected Areas.” Edited by Eric Gordon Lamb. PLOS ONE 12 (10): e0185809. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0185809.

Heckscher, Christopher M. 2018. “A Nearctic-Neotropical Migratory Songbird’s Nesting Phenology and Clutch Size Are Predictors of Accumulated Cyclone Energy.” Scientific Reports 8 (9899). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-28302-3.

International), BirdLife International (BirdLife. 2018a. “Pterodroma Cahow.” IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, August. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T22698088A132624115.en.

———. 2018b. “Pelecanus Occidentalis.” IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, August. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T22733989A132663224.en.

“Jamie Rappaport Clark.” 2021. In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jamie_Rappaport_Clark&oldid=1030785308.

“Many Bird Species Are Close to Extinction.” n.d. BirdLife International. Accessed September 22, 2021. http://datazone.birdlife.org/sowb/state/theme4.

McGlashen, Andy. 2019. “Are These Birds Better Than Computers at Predicting Hurricane Seasons?” Audubon. August 13, 2019. https://www.audubon.org/news/are-these-birds-better-computers-predicting-hurricane-seasons.

“New Bird Species and Giraffe under Threat – IUCN Red List.” 2016. IUCN. December 8, 2016. https://www.iucn.org/news/secretariat/201612/new-bird-species-and-giraffe-under-threat-%E2%80%93-iucn-red-list.

Paleczny, Michelle, Edd Hammill, Vasiliki Karpouzi, and Daniel Pauly. 2015. “Population Trend of the World’s Monitored Seabirds, 1950-2010.” PLOS ONE 10 (6): e0129342. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129342.

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Safina, Carl. 2020a. Becoming Wild: How Animal Cultures Raise Families, Create Beauty, and Achieve Peace. New York.

———. 2020b. “Psychic Numbing: Keeping Hope Alive in a World of Extinctions.” Yale E360. February 26, 2020. https://e360.yale.edu/features/psychic-numbing-keeping-hope-alive-in-a-world-of-extinctions.

Sánchez-Bayo, Francisco, and Kris A. G. Wyckhuys. 2019. “Worldwide Decline of the Entomofauna: A Review of Its Drivers.” Biological Conservation 232 (April): 8–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2019.01.020.

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“Third of Open Ocean Sharks Threatened with Extinction.” 2009. IUCN. June 25, 2009. https://www.iucn.org/content/third-open-ocean-sharks-threatened-extinction.

“USFWS: America’s Mussels.” 2019. US Fish & Wildlife Service. May 29, 2019. https://www.fws.gov/midwest/endangered/clams/mussels.html.

Valdivia, Abel, Shaye Wolf, and Kieran Suckling. 2019. “Marine Mammals and Sea Turtles Listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act Are Recovering.” PLOS ONE 14 (1): e0210164. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0210164.

“We Have Lost over 150 Bird Species since 1500.” n.d. BirdLife International. Accessed September 22, 2021. http://datazone.birdlife.org/sowb/casestudy/we-have-lost-over-150-bird-species-since-1500.

“Which Countries Are Still Whaling?” 2014. IFAW. March 17, 2014. https://www.ifaw.org/news/which-countries-are-still-whaling.

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